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field_methods:plant_species_inventory [2014/01/30 16:32]
jgh
field_methods:plant_species_inventory [2014/01/30 19:34]
jgh
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 <​sup>​[[:​bug_reporting|Report a bug, broken link, or incorrect content]]</​sup>​[[http://​methods.landscapetoolbox.org|{{ field_methods:​methodsguide3.png?​220x120|}}]] <​sup>​[[:​bug_reporting|Report a bug, broken link, or incorrect content]]</​sup>​[[http://​methods.landscapetoolbox.org|{{ field_methods:​methodsguide3.png?​220x120|}}]]
-====== Plant Species Inventory ======+====== ​Plot-Level ​Plant Species Inventory ======
 [[http://​www.landscapetoolbox.org/​about/​get_involved|{{:​abstract_in_dev.gif|}}]]\\ [[http://​www.landscapetoolbox.org/​about/​get_involved|{{:​abstract_in_dev.gif|}}]]\\
-from the USDA-ARS //​Monitoring Manual for Grassland, Shrubland and Savanna Ecosystems//​+written by Grant Hamilton
  
-===== Introduction ​===== +===== Method Type ===== 
-A plot-level species inventory provides a rapid estimate of species richness. ​ A thorough search of the plot can detect less-frequently occurring species that may not have been recorded in cover measurements (e.g., [[field_methods:​line_point_intercept|Line-point intercept]]). ​ For a more intensive species richness measurement,​ see the [[field_methods:​species_richness_-_modified_whitaker_approach|modified Whitaker species richness approach]]. +Quantitative
-===== Materials Required =====+
  
-  * Measuring tapes (transect lengths) +===== Description ===== 
-  * Stopwatch +A plot level species inventory is intended ​to provide a rapid appraisal of the floral biodiversity of an area.  Species level inventory occurs in conjunction with other survey methods such as the [[field_methods:​line_point_intercept|line-point intercept transect survey]], which quantitatively measures soil cover and plant canopy cover.  ​The same plots developed ​for the line-point intercept inventory are used in the species level inventory. ​ If the species inventory is part of a [[protocols:​national_resource_inventory|National Resources Inventory]] ​(NRIsurvey, the plots should be divided into sections with an area of 1,641 m<​sup>​2<​/sup> to ensure compatibility. ​ The species-level inventory occurs after [[field_methods:​vegetation_plant_height|vegetation height]], line-point, and [[field_methods:​canopy_gap_intercept|gap intercept]] measurements on transects are complete. It is conducted by a single observer who systematically and uniformly searches the entire plot for 15 minutes.
-  * Pin flags to mark unknown plants +
-  * Plant identification keys and books +
-  * Four 1.5 m (5 ft) PVC pipes (optional) +
-  * Compass +
-  * Electronic device ​for paperless data collection ​(preferredOR clipboardSpecies Inventory Data Sheet (available in Appendix B of the //Monitoring Manual//), and pencil(s)+
  
-===== Standard Method ===== +{{:​field_methods:​plant_species_inv.png}}
-== 1Set up the species inventory plot.==+
  
-The species inventory area is within at least a portion of the area covered by the Line-point intercept transects.  +** Each of the these plot layouts achieve an area of 1,641 m<​sup>​2</​sup> ​as part of an NRI survey.  ​The dashed lines represent paths walked by the observer**
-  ​A square or rectangular sub-plot shape created by connecting the ends of the plot transects is recommended for a systematic species search (Figure 32a). Lay out the transect tape on at least one side of the square or rectangle to define the sub-plot boundaries so that the data recorder can see the boundaries within which to conduct the reconnaissance for species inventory. Record both the size and shape of the plot searched. +
-  * Optional: For compatibility with NRI, the cumulative species inventory plot area is 1,641 m<​sup>​2</​sup> ​(17, 662 ft2) (Figure 32c). +
-  * Always inventory ​the same plot area for all plots within a project and for repeat visits to plots+
  
-== 2. Systematically ​and uniformly search the entire plot for 15 minutes. ​== +===== Advantages ​and Limitations ​=====       
-  * Area is searched by one individual, although ​recorder may stand off-plot to record data. Do not re-search any areas already searched.  +This method ​is a compromise between the more thorough but time intensive [[field_methods:​species_richness_-_modified_whitaker_approach|modified Whitaker species richness approach]] ​and the more approximate estimates ​of biodiversity achieved through canopy level inventories,​ which sometimes fail to accurately account for the presence of rare or invasive species A high level of plant identification competence is necessary ​to efficiently inventory ​plot.  Unknown species are flagged during ​the inventory and are later identifiedwhich can offset ​the time savings achieved through a 15 minute time limit placed on inventorying each plot.  
-  * Area search occurs after Vegetation height, Line-point, ​and Gap intercept measurements on transects are complete.  +
-  * Work from the corners ​of the plot toward the sub-plot center in a systematic, ​or zig-zag search pattern (Figure 32)If external boundary tapes are not used, it may be helpful ​to attach ​PVC pipe to the end of each transect to identify plot cornersand then use compass bearings to ensure position within ​the sub-plot. +
  
-{{:​field_methods:​plant_species_inv.png}}\\ +===== Related Methods =====  
-**Figure 32. Three species inventory plot layout options to achieve an area of 1,641 m<​sup>​2</​sup>: ​a) a single square ​species inventory ​plot with a side of 40.5 m (132.9 ft), b) three 10.9 (35.7 ft) x 50 m (164 ft) rectangular sub-plots, ​and c) a 22.9 m (75 ft) radiuscircular plotDashed lines represent the path walked by the observer.**+As stated earlier, a species ​level inventory ​is used in association ​with other inventory methods including the line-point intercept transect survey ​and cover measurement A [[field_methods:​complete_population_count|complete census]] enumerates the entire population eliminating sampling errorbut at the expense of considerable investment in resources Often only invasive or rare species are enumerated
  
-== 3. Record each species found within the plot. ==  +===== Data Entry and Management =====    
-  * At least 50% of a plant base must be rooted inside the plot boundary to be recorded +Electronic record keeping is recommended.  ​The [[databases:rangeland_database|Database for InventoryMonitoring & Assessment ​(DIMA)]] contains data entry forms which can be downloaded as part of an MS Access database.  ​DIMA is compatible ​with PDAs and tablets.  ​Alternatively,​ a paper version ​of the species ​inventory form can printed from the appendix ​of the //​Monitoring Manual ​for GrasslandShrubland ​and Savanna Ecosystems//​.
-  * Record each species found within the plot in the "​Species"​ column of the data sheet using (a) a national standard species code (in the U.S. use the PLANTS - database http://​plants.usda.gov), (bscientific name or (c) common name.  ​Each species ​is listed only one time. +
-  * Mark unknown plant species ​with a pin flag and return to identify them after the search time has expired.  ​Do not spend any of the 15 minute search time deliberating about species ​identification,​ or looking through plant species lists or books to identify unknowns. ​ Assign a personal, temporary ID to questionable plants if necessary (e.g., "​Yellow Aster 1", "​Yellow Aster 2", "​Spikey grass",​ "Black stemmed shrub",​ etc.), and write out their full identifications after the 15 minute search period to save time.  If field identification is not possible, take geo¬tagged (except for NRI) photographs ​of the unknown plant. ​ Be sure to include a photo ID card in the photo. ​ If possible, collect and press a plant specimen from nearby, but off-plot, ​for later identification (see Plant Identification,​ page 14).  This specimen needs to include as many potentially identi¬fying elements as possible, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits +
-  * If species is not known, use the following codes and add sequential numbers as necessary: ​+
  
-**AF#​** ​Annual forb (also includes biennials) \\ +===== References =====  
-**PF#​** ​Perennial forb \\ +  Elzinga et al. 2001. //Measuring and Monitoring Plant Populations//​. BLM Technical Reference 1730-1. (Elzinga et al. 2001) [[http://​www.blm.gov/​nstc/​library/​pdf/​MeasAndMon.pdf]]. ​
-**PG#​** ​Perennial graminoid \\ +
-**SH#​** ​Shrub \\ +
-**TR#** = Tree \\+
  
-===== Quality Assurance Checklist ===== +  ​USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range(2014). //​Monitoring Manual for GrasslandShrubland ​and Savanna Ecosystems//​Volume I: Core Methods2nd Edpp54-5675. http://​jornada.nmsu.edu/​monit-assess/​manuals/​monitoring.
-  ​Each data sheet is complete. Observer, recorder, date, plot name, sub-plot area, sub-plot shape, and search time are recorded +
-  * Unknown plants are described according to unknown plant protocols, photographed, and a specimen collected when possible +
-  * Data collection team confirms species list is complete and correct +
-  * Number and type of species are consistent with plot observations +
-  * Boundaries of search area are clearly marked +
-  * A recorderin addition to recording species, can also ensure the observer is moving through the plot quickly enough to cover the entire search area in 15 minutes+
  
-===== Species Inventory Indicator Calculations ===== +  ​* USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range. (n.d). Database ​for InventoryMonitoring & Assessment (DIMA). http://​jornada.nmsu.edu/​monit-assess/​dima.
- +
-== 1. Count the total number of species recorded. == +
-  * Only count each species once.  +
-  *  Count every plant species, even if its identification is unknown (e.g., PG01, PG02).  +
-  * Only include species recorded in other methods (e.g., Line-point intercept, Vegetation height) if (a) they were also captured during the species inventory or (b) the transects are wholly contained within the species inventory sub-plot.  +
- +
-== 2. Determine functional groups (e.g., shrubs, perennial grasses). Record the number of species in each functional group. == +
- +
-== 3. Identify potential species of management concern for the plot and record presence or absence of these species. ==  +
- +
-===== Manual ===== +
-  ​* USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range. (2014). //​Monitoring Manual ​for GrasslandShrubland and Savanna Ecosystems//​. Volume I: Core Methods. 2nd Ed. pp. 54-56. http://​jornada.nmsu.edu/​monit-assess/​manuals/​monitoring+
  
 ===== Discussion/​Comments ===== ===== Discussion/​Comments =====
field_methods/plant_species_inventory.txt · Last modified: 2014/01/30 19:34 by jgh