User Tools

Site Tools


protocols:long-term_ecological_research_lter

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
protocols:long-term_ecological_research_lter [2014/04/01 16:42]
sfperry [Core Monitoring Methods]
protocols:long-term_ecological_research_lter [2014/04/02 12:54] (current)
sfperry [Published Examples Using LTER Data]
Line 7: Line 7:
 ===== What is LTER? ===== ===== What is LTER? =====
 LTER stands for “long term ecological research” and involves research and analysis conducted on ecological issues that exist for large periods of time and occupy vast geographical areas. A network of 6 LTER sites was created by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1980 to help document and analyze ecological change over an extensive amount of time. The number of LTER sites has now grown to 26, spanning from Alaska to the Caribbean, with two additional sites in Antarctica. LTER stands for “long term ecological research” and involves research and analysis conducted on ecological issues that exist for large periods of time and occupy vast geographical areas. A network of 6 LTER sites was created by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1980 to help document and analyze ecological change over an extensive amount of time. The number of LTER sites has now grown to 26, spanning from Alaska to the Caribbean, with two additional sites in Antarctica.
 +
 +{{:​protocols:​lter_sites.jpg?​width=300}}
 ===== LTER Sites ===== ===== LTER Sites =====
-Andrews Experimental Forest:USDA USFS, Oregon State University +Andrews Experimental Forest:USDA USFS, Oregon State University\\ 
-Arctic LTER site: University of Alaska +Arctic LTER site: University of Alaska\\ 
-Baltimore Ecosystem Study: USDA USFS, University of Maryland +Baltimore Ecosystem Study: USDA USFS, University of Maryland\\ 
-Bonanza Creek: USDA USFS, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Boreal Ecology Cooperative Research Unit +Bonanza Creek: USDA USFS, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Boreal Ecology Cooperative Research Unit\\ 
-California Current: University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography +California Current: University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography\\ 
-Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve: University of Minnesota +Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve: University of Minnesota\\ 
-Central Arizona-Phoenix:​ Arizona State University +Central Arizona-Phoenix:​ Arizona State University\\ 
-Coweeta: USDA USFS, University of Georgia +Coweeta: USDA USFS, University of Georgia\\ 
-Florida CoastalEverglades:​ Florida International University +Florida CoastalEverglades:​ Florida International University\\ 
-Georgia Coastal Ecosystems: University of Georgia Marine Institute +Georgia Coastal Ecosystems: University of Georgia Marine Institute\\ 
-Harvard Forest: USDA USFS, US Environmental Protection Agency, Harvard University +Harvard Forest: USDA USFS, US Environmental Protection Agency, Harvard University\\ 
-Hubbard Brook: USDA USFS +Hubbard Brook: USDA USFS\\ 
-Jornada Basin: USDA ARS, New Mexico State University +Jornada Basin: USDA ARS, New Mexico State University\\ 
-Kellogg Biological Station: Michigan State University +Kellogg Biological Station: Michigan State University\\ 
-Konza Prairie: The Nature Conservancy,​ Kansas State University +Konza Prairie: The Nature Conservancy,​ Kansas State University\\ 
-Luquillo:  +Luquillo:\\ 
-McMurdo Dry Valleys:  +McMurdo Dry Valleys:\\  
-Moorea Coral Reef: University of California Santa Barbara, California State University Northridge +Moorea Coral Reef: University of California Santa Barbara, California State University Northridge\\ 
-NIwot Ridge: University of Colorado at Boulder +Niwot Ridge: University of Colorado at Boulder\\ 
-North Temperate Lakes: Center for Limnology +North Temperate Lakes: Center for Limnology\\ 
-Palmer Antarctica: ​ Columbia University +Palmer Antarctica: ​ Columbia University\\ 
-Santa Barbara Coastal LTER:  University of California Santa Barbara, Marine Science Institute +Santa Barbara Coastal LTER:  University of California Santa Barbara, Marine Science Institute\\ 
-Sevilleta: The University of New Mexico, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service +Sevilleta: The University of New Mexico, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service\\ 
-Shortgrass Steppe: USDA USFS Pawnee National Grassland, USDA ARS, Colorado State University, Central Plains Experimental Range, Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station +Shortgrass Steppe: USDA USFS Pawnee National Grassland, USDA ARS, Colorado State University, Central Plains Experimental Range, Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station\\ 
-Virginia Coast Reserve: University of Virginia, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, the Nature Conservancy+Virginia Coast Reserve: University of Virginia, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, the Nature Conservancy\\
  
 All sites are supported by the National Science Foundation. All sites are supported by the National Science Foundation.
  
-===== Supplemental Monitoring Methods ​===== +===== Benefits ​===== 
-Supplemental methods may be included when the core methods are insufficient to inform a particular management objective. These additional methods are not intended to replace ​the core methods ​Instead they provide additional ​information ​necessary ​to answer local management questions ​Supplemental methods in conjunction ​with the core methods allow these data to be used for multiple management objectives ​by providing basic ecosystem attribute information while also meeting local monitoring needs ​Detailed descriptions ​of the supplemental methods can be found in Volume II of the //​Monitoring Manual//.+The information gained from LTER research can benefit ​the health, productivity,​ and well-being of the global environmentSpecifically,​ the information ​helps predict future biological responses ​to change, provide additional data on important issues such as climate change, and makes evaluation of the pace on ecological change possibleExamples would include data about human impacts on land, such as with the research being done in the Andrews Forest LTER in the Pacific Northwest, where thousands of acres of old-growth forest were cut down in the past for timber production. At this site, data is being collected on how the forest is recovering from the cutdown ​by looking at the stages of tree structure, vegetation composition and spatial heterogeneity of the forestAnother example is of the research being done in Alaska at the Arctic LTER site. At this site, data is being collected on the shrinking amount ​of permafrost due to rising global temperatures and how this affects ​the global atmosphere, since permafrost holds massive amounts of carbon 
 +===== Unique Components of LTER ===== 
 +1) The research is located at specific sites chosen to represent major ecosystem types or natural biomes \\ 
 +2) It emphasizes the study of phenomena over long periods of time, based upon data collection in five core areas: primary production, population studies, movement of organic matter, and movement of inorganic matter \\ 
 +3) Projects include significant integrative,​ cross-site, network-wide research\\
  
-^Supplemental Method ^Indicators Assessed^ +As provided byhttp://​www.lternet.edu/​network/​ 
-|[[field_methods:soil_compaction|Compaction test]] ​ |• Soil compaction ​ | +===== Jornada Basin LTER ===== 
-|[[field_methods:infiltration|Infiltration]] ​ |• Soil infiltration capacity ​ | +The Jornada Basin LTER exists near the southern New Mexico city of Las Cruces. It was established in 1982 to investigate desertification processes in the Chihuahuan desert. According to their website, significant progress has been made in understanding these processes. Specifically,​ research has been done on vegetation trends in 5 different habitats within the Chihuahuan desertblack grama grassland ​(Bouteloua eriopoda), creosotebush scrub (Larrea tridentata),​ mesquite duneland (Prosopis glandulosa),​ tarbush shrublands (Flourensia cernua)and playa. Another research focus has been on soil development within the Jornada Basin and Range. Studies have been done on alluvial materials that exist in broad valleys between parallel mountain ranges. These kinds of valleys exist not only in the basin and range, but throughout Arizona, Nevada and into the Mojave Desert of California.
-|[[field_methods:​plant_production_-_harvesting|Plant production]] ​ |• Total annual production ​ | +
-|[[field_methods:species_richness_-_modified_whitaker_approach|Species richness ​(modified Whitaker method)]]  |• Biodiversity ​ | +
-|[[field_methods:​density_quadrats|Plant density]] ​ |• Non-native invasive plant species\\ • Plant density\\ • Plant species ​of management concern ​ | +
-|[[field_methods:​visual_obstruction_method|Vegetation structure]] ​ |• Visual obstruction ​ | +
-|[[field_methods:​density_quadrats|Tree density]] ​ |• Structure diversity\\ • Woody biomass ​ | +
-|[[field_methods:​riparian_channel_vegetation_survey ​ |Riparian vegetation]] ​ |• Riparian vegetation composition ​ | +
-|[[field_methods:​channel_gully_profile|Channel/​gully profiles]] ​ |• Channel shape  |+
  
-===== Manuals ​===== +Website: http://​jornada-www.nmsu.edu/​ 
-  * USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range(2014)//​Monitoring Manual for GrasslandShrubland ​and Savanna Ecosystems, Volume I: Core Methods//. 2nd Edhttp://​jornada.nmsu.edu/​monit-assess/​manuals/​monitoring.+===== Andrews Forest LTER ===== 
 +Located in the western Cascade mountains of Oregon, the Andrews Forest LTER was one of the original 6 LTER sites created by the National Science Foundation in 1980It was originally established as an experimental forest by the US Forest Service in 1948 when most of the old- 
 +growth forest still existedThroughout the yearsresearch focus has ranged from old-growth harvest to the function ​and structure of forest ecosystemsCurrently, research is being done on the ecological response of forests to land use, climate change, and natural disasters.
  
-  * USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range. (2014). //​Monitoring Manual for Grassland, Shrubland and Savanna Ecosystems, Volume IIDesign, Supplementary Methods and Interpretation//​. 2nd Ed. http://jornada.nmsu.edu/monit-assess/​manuals/​monitoring.+Website: http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/ 
 +===== ILTER: International Long Term Research Network ===== 
 +In addition to the U.S. LTER, the ILTER was established in 1993 to promote global long-term ecological research. The network consists of forty member networks from countries that span the globe, such as Brazil, South Africa, and Mongolia. The governing body of ILTER meets annually at a meeting hosted by one of the member networks.
  
 +Link to ILTER network locations:​http://​www.ilternet.edu/​member-networks
 +===== Links to International LTERS =====
 +SAEON (South Africa)-http://​www.saeon.ac.za/​
 +
 +Brazilian LTER-http://​www.icb.ufmg.br/​peld/​
 +
 +Hövsgöl ILTER (Mongolia)-http://​asia.ansp.org/​hovsgol/​LTER.html
 +===== Published Examples Using LTER Data =====
 +  * Redman, Charles L., J. Morgan Grove, and Lauren H. Kuby (2004). Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network: Social Dimensions of Ecological Change and Ecological Dimensions of Social Change. Ecosystems, 7(2), 161-171. DOI: 10.1007/​s10021-003-0215-z ​
 +
 +This article is about the integration of the social science into the LTER network and looks at the the “social dimensions of ecological change”.
 +
 +  * Brazel, Anthony, Nancy Selover, Russell Vose, and Gordon Heisler (2000). Understanding urban climates: The tale of two climates—Baltimore and Phoenix urban LTER sites. Climate Research, 15, 123-135. DOI: 10.3354/​cr015123. ​
 +
 +The article analyzes the effects of urban areas on the local climate as the cities of Baltimore and Phoenix increase in size and population each year. Data that is used spans from 1900 to 2000.
 +
 +  * Childers, D. L. (2006). A synthesis of long-term research by the Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program. Hydrobiologia,​ 569(1), 531-544. DOI: 10.1007/​s10750-006-0154-8. ​
 +
 +This paper is a summary of all research conducted in the Florida Everglades over a 5-6 year time period. Research subjects included: use of organic matter in the ecosystem, understanding estuaries, and the dynamics of aquatic food webs.
 ===== Discussion/​Comments ===== ===== Discussion/​Comments =====
 <​sub>​**You must have an account and be logged in to post or reply to the discussion topics below. [[http://​wiki.landscapetoolbox.org/​doku.php/​Home?​do=login&​sectok=db3676cff5bcd873b609b4e582432d73|Click here]] to login or register for the site.**</​sub>​ <​sub>​**You must have an account and be logged in to post or reply to the discussion topics below. [[http://​wiki.landscapetoolbox.org/​doku.php/​Home?​do=login&​sectok=db3676cff5bcd873b609b4e582432d73|Click here]] to login or register for the site.**</​sub>​
 +
  
protocols/long-term_ecological_research_lter.1396392167.txt.gz · Last modified: 2014/04/01 16:42 by sfperry